Mickey notes how the “farmers’ coalition and populist party” clashed with national and government democratic parties on major economic issues, including debt relief for farmers and the regulation of businesses. “What’s more, the Color Farmers Alliance also grew rapidly, and demonstrated the potential for building genetic alliances.” This possibility has become a reality in states like Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina, where populists have joined a Republican party with a black majority to support the joint lists of candidates in “Fusion” agreements against a white, frank, elitist, democratic party. The populists and Republicans won their greatest victories of that era in North Carolina, capturing the state legislature and governor’s palace, as well as local and local offices.
Democrats, including the large landowners and “new southern” industrialists, responded with violence. Democratic paramilitary organizations – so-called “red shirts” – attacked populist and Republican voters, and suppressed voting throughout the state. In the Republican-controlled Wilmington book, Mickey writes, “The Democratic Senators unleashed a wave of violence and killed Republicans and their supporters, in black and white, to retake the state’s largest city; hundreds fled forever.”
This basic pattern repeated itself throughout the South for several decades. Working through the Democratic Party and the conservative elites “repressed the populists, took control of the state apparatus, and effectively ended the credible party competition.” They rewritten state constitutions to end the vote on blacks and also severely restricted them for most whites. They recruited states to secure the political power of the big landowners, and they turned local electoral offices into specific jobs[Controlsthelevelofthestate”andisolatesthejudgesofthestatefromthepopularinputs”Thiscouldhavebeenstoppedbutthetiredpeoplefromthesectarianconflictandthecourtscannothaveaninterestintherightsofblacksoranyotherpersontheprecautionofdemocracy[controlledatthestatelevel“andfurtherinsulatedstatejudiciariesfrompopularinput”ThiscouldhavebeenstoppedbuttheNorthwastiredofsectionalconflictandthecourtshadnointerestintherightsofblacksoranyoneelseunderthebootoftheDemocracy[يسيطرعلىمستوىالدولة،”ويعزلقضاةالولايةمنالمدخلاتالشعبية”كانمنالممكنإيقافهذا،لكنالشمالسئممنالصراعالطائفي،ولميكنللمحاكممصلحةفيحقوقالسودأوأيشخصآخرتحتسوطالديمقراطية[controlledatthestatelevel“andfurtherinsulatedstatejudiciariesfrompopularinput”ThiscouldhavebeenstoppedbuttheNorthwastiredofsectionalconflictandthecourtshadnointerestintherightsofblacksoranyoneelseunderthebootoftheDemocracy
The Southern Democratic Party not only controlled all offices and worked effectively in the state bureaucracy. He was the gatekeeper of all political participation. An ambitious politician cannot run for president, much less winning and participating in government, without being behind it. “which country?” Requested A prominent lawyer during the Jim Crow Constitutional Conference of 1898 in Louisiana, which has acquired a dynamic in action, “It is the Democratic Party.” Mickey wrote that “the state was entangled with the party”, and partisanship lacked betrayal of the state.
Southern conservatives have responded to populism and hereditary democracy to build a one-party state, ensuring cheap labor, low taxes, white sovereignty, and an unequal distribution of wealth. It took two decades of turmoil – the Great Depression, Great Migration, and World War II – to make change possible, then another decade of violent struggle to restore democracy to the south.
It is not that we cannot learn from the experiences of other countries, but our past provides a particularly strong comparison point. There are many elements themselves playing their role, from the powerful influence of the reactionary business elite to a large political party convinced of its individual legitimacy. The party that has already weakened our democracy to protect its authority, and which shows every sign of moving forward if the need arises. A party that stands beside a lawless president, protects him from accountability while making the government an extension of his personal will.